Singapore is experiencing an exponential number of cases of dengueacute infection which – as you will discover in the following lines – mainly manifests itself with fever and pains spread over the whole body (not surprisingly it is also known as “bone-breaking fever“).
As the Istituto Superiore di Sanità reminds us, we are facing a disease “caused by four very similar viruses (Den-1, Den-2, Den-3 and Den-4), transmitted to humans by mosquito bites that have, in turn, stung an infected person. There is therefore no direct contagion between human beings“. Which i symptoms and which the treatmentas well as the countermeasures to prevent this viral disease from developing?
Symptoms, treatment and prevention of dengue
The declining numbers recorded on the island of the Asian continent in the last 21 days (1569 cases between 22 and 28 May, 1455 in the interval 29 May-4 June and 1190 in the period 5-12 June) represent an only apparent slowdown. : Not still has been reached up the peak (it is estimated that it will reach over 1787 cases in 2020, recording a new historical record); a new and rapid rise is expected starting from mid-June (the month in which traditionally the peak period of dengue begins).
Generally i symptoms occur at a distance of 3 – 15 days following the bite of an infected mosquito. Those who experience them should immediately consult a doctor for diagnosis and treatment (promptness can facilitate better case management). The main alarm bells I am :
- sudden onset of fever. It can be mild in form but also hemorrhagic (FED);
- severe headache with retro-orbital pain (behind the eye);
- joint and muscle pain;
- skin rashes;
- nausea and vomit;
- bleeding from the nose or gums;
- bruises on the skin.
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There is no treatment specific and in most cases people recover completely in two weeks. The ISS reminds that: “Supportive healing care consists of absolute rest, use of drugs to lower fever and administration of fluids to the patient to combat dehydration “.
In the absence of FED or shock syndrome (SSD), mortality is nil (worldwide out of about 50-100 million cases, about 20,000 deaths are recorded). “There prevention of outbreaks is mainly based on the reduction and eradication of Aedes aegypti by eliminating growth sites and using larvicides. The use of sprays […] and organ phosphoric insecticides […] has been successful in reducing the mosquito population“(Ceci, Treatise on Internal Medicine).
Example Singapore: authorities in the dengue test between monitoring and contrast
One wonders how local authorities are moving to stem the problem: the countermeasures adopted can act as a starting point to minimize proliferation in other countries. It is on the shields there National Environment Agency (NEA), statutory council of the Singapore government’s Ministry of Sustainability and Environment, a sort of permanent scientific committee composed of three operational divisions, including that of “environmental public health“Responsible for the surveillance and application of preventive measures.
It has taken a multi-pronged approach to dengue eradication in recent years: surveillance, awareness raising, Research And contrast active. Of particular note were the door-to-door lectures: NEA officers visited homes located in areas most at risk of spreading to educate residents on how to prevent mosquito breeding inside homes. During these visits, the Authority inspects the home and highlights good practices as well as places where the mosquito can potentially proliferate.
There NEA is conducting intensified control operations in the areas of dengue clusters by moving along two sides: the eradication of mosquito breeding habitats and the massive use of insecticides to reduce their population. She also urged citizens and individuals living in the southern Malaysian city-state in various capacities to implement appropriate behaviors to slow the transmission of the disease as much as possible. Prevention takes place long two directives.
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There Before is based on the model BLOCK (“Block”), acronym for: B.reak up hardened soil “
crush the moistened soil (in particular that of the flower pots) “, Lift and empty flower floor plates “lift and empty the saucers”, ORverturn pails and wipe their rimes “overturn the buckets and dry the edges”, C.hange water in vases “change the water in the jars”, Keep roof gutters clean and place ‘BTI’ insecticide “keep roof gutters clean and place BTI insecticide”.
There second on the SAW “protocol”: Spray (spray insecticide in the corners of the house where mosquitoes could hide more easily), TOpply (regularly apply insect repellent, especially those containing DEET N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide, picaridin or IR3535, the most effective in repelling Aedes mosquitoes) and Wear (wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants).
A vademecum also suitable for all those who live in Singapore but – for business or holiday reasons – will stay for a large number of days away from home. Before traveling, they will have to take numerous preventive measures such as: overturn all the pots and saucers to prevent water from settling there in case of rain, cover the toilets and seal the drain.
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